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Chao Wang

Book Chapters

Mikhail A. Kats, Yu Yao, and Chao Wang, Plasmonics and Surface Plasmons. In Encyclopedia of Plasma Technology, Taylor and Francis Group: 2016.

Journal Publications Since Joining ASU in 2015

12. Zhi Zhao , Xiahui Chen, Jiawei Zuo, Ali Basiri, Shinhyuk Choi, Yu Yao, Yan Liu *, and Chao Wang *, “Deterministic Assembly of Single Emitters in Sub-5 Nanometer Optical Cavity Formed by Gold Nanorod Dimers on Three-Dimensional DNA Origami ” Nano Research, 2021, https://doi.org/10.1007/s12274-021-3661-z. (arXiv:2104.02916 ; Springer Nature Content Sharing Initiative)

Controllable strong interactions between a nanocavity and a single emitter is important to manipulating optical emission in a nanophotonic systems but challenging to achieve. Here a three-dimensional DNA origami, named as DNA rack (DR) is proposed and demonstrated to deterministically and precisely assemble single emitters within ultra-small plasmonic nanocavities formed by closely coupled gold nanorods (AuNRs). The DR uniquely possesses a saddle shape with two tubular grooves that geometrically allows a snug fit and linearly align two AuNRs with a bending angle <10°. It also includes a spacer at the saddle point to maintain the gap between AuNRs as small as 2-3 nm, forming a nanocavity estimated to be 20 nm3 and an experimentally measured  factor of 7.3. A DNA docking strand is designed at the spacer to position a single fluorescent emitter at nanometer accuracy within the cavity. Using Cy5 as a model emitter, a ~30-fold fluorescence enhancement and a significantly reduced emission lifetime (from 1.6 ns to 670 ps) were experimentally verified, confirming significant emitter-cavity interactions. This DR-templated assembly method is capable of fitting AuNRs of variable length-to-width aspect ratios to form anisotropic nanocavities and deterministically incorporating different single emitters, thus enabling flexible design of both cavity resonance and emission wavelengths to tailor light-matter interactions at nanometer scale.
11. Pengkun Xia, Jiawei Zuo, Pravin Paudel, Shinhyuk Choi, Xiahui Chen, Md Ashiqur Rahman Laskar, Jing Bai, Weisi Song, JongOne Im, Chao Wang*, “Sapphire-Supported Nanopores for Low-Noise DNA Sensing,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2020.112829, 2020. (Link: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0956566320308150; Full access until Jan 2021: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1cCuk3PVtpkT%7Es; Also available on BioRxiv, Link: https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.02.973826v1)
Solid-state nanopores have broad applications in single-molecule biosensing and diagnostics, but their high electrical noise associated with a large device capacitance has seriously limited both their sensing accuracy and recording speed. Current strategies to mitigate the noise has focused on introducing insulating materials (such as polymer or glass) to decrease the device capacitance, but the complex process integration schemes diminish the potential to reproducibly create such nanopore devices. Here, we report a scalable and reliable approach to create nanopore membranes on sapphire with triangular shape and controlled dimensions by anisotropic wet etching a crystalline sapphire wafer, thus eliminating the noise-dominating stray capacitance that is intrinsic to conventional Si based devices. We demonstrate tunable control of the membrane dimension in a wide range from ~200 μm to as small as 5 μm, which corresponds to <1 pF membrane capacitance for a hypothetical 1-2 nm thick membrane. ..
Metal printing 10. Zhi Zhao*, Jing Bai, Yu Yao, and Chao Wang*, “Printing Continuous Metal Structures via Polymer-Assisted Photochemical Deposition,” Materials Today, vol. 37, pp. 10-17, 2020.
Patterning complex metallic structures via additive manufacturing (AM) has broad applications in energy, medical and aerospace industries. Current AM methods are often limited by high processing temperature, discontinuous film deposition and/or low product conductivity and reflectivity. We present a versatile room-temperature metal printing technique based on polymer-assisted photochemical deposition (PPD). Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) printing of silver, gold and platinum structures with feature sizes as small as 5 µm are demonstrated on various substrates, including silicon, glass, polymers and biocompatible hydrogels. The PPD-printed metal films are continuous and smooth (roughness <3 nm) even at ultra-low thicknesses (<10 nm), and highly conductive (~3105 S cm-1) and reflective comparable to that of vacuum deposited counterparts. This breakthrough in advanced AM technique holds great promise for low-cost, fast and distributed manufacturing in optics, electronics and robotics.
 9. Zhi Zhao , Chao Wang, Hao Yan *, and Yan Liu *, “Soft Robotics Programmed with Double Crosslinking DNA Hydrogels,” Advanced Functional Materials, pp. 1905911, 2019. (Link: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/adfm.201905911)
Being the genetic material of living organisms, DNA molecules should have the intrinsic potential to manipulate and control the responsiveness of macroscopic objects. Here we demonstrate a novel strategy to magnify the nanometer scale DNA self-assembly into a macroscopic mechanical responsiveness. By incorporating molecularly engineered DNA sequences into a polymeric network, we are able to create a new type of mechanical responsive polymer material, whose overall morphology is dynamically controlled by DNA hybridization induced crosslinking. As a further step, DNA functionalized polymer hydrogel in combination with a bottom-up 3D printing technology were employed to create modular macroscopic structures that feature programmable reconfiguration and directional movement, which could even mimic the complex gestures of human hands. …
8. Jing Bai , Chu Wang, Xiahui Chen, Ali Basiri, Chao Wang, and Yu Yao *, “On Chip-Integrated Plasmonic Flat Optics for Mid-Infrared Full-Stokes Polarization Detection,” Photonics Research, vol. 7, pp. 1051-1060, 2019. (Link: https://www.osapublishing.org/prj/abstract.cfm?uri=prj-7-9-1051)
Flat optics presents a new path to control the phase, amplitude and polarization state of light on compactly and scalably manufactured devices. Here we propose and demonstrate a flat-optic polarization detector to completely analyze the Stokes parameters of mid-IR light with arbitrary polarization states. By monolithically integrating plasmonic polarizers and quarter waveplates with subwavelength thickness (<600 nm), our detector is capable of analyzing both the linear polarization and the circular polarization, thus achieving a high Stokes-parameter measurement accuracy (2.5-10 %) at mid-IR wavelength (~4 µm) that remains so far elusive. Our detector design applies over a broad wavelength range from 1.5 to 4 µm and to multi-wavelength polarization detection.
7. Ali Basiri , Xiahui Chen, Pouya Amrollahi, Jing Bai, Joe Carpenter, Zachary Holman, Chao Wang *, and Yu Yao *, “Nature-Inspired Chiral Metasurfaces for On-Chip Circularly Polarized Light Detection,” Light: Science & Applications, vol. 8, Article number: 78, 2019. (Link: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41377-019-0184-4)
Chiral metamaterials and metasurfaces enable ultra-compact devices for circularly polarized light generation, manipulation and detection. Here we report bioinspired chiral metasurfaces with both strong chiral optical effect and low insertion loss. We have demonstrated experimentally sub-micron-thick circularly polarized light filters with extinction ratios up to 35 and transmission efficiency close to 80% at near infrared wavelengths (from 1.3 to 1.6 µm). We have also monolithically integrated the microscale circular polarization filters with linear polarization filters to perform full Stokes polarimetric measurement of light with arbitrary polarization state. With the advantages in easy on-chip integration, ultra-compact footprint, scalability, and broad wavelength coverage, our designs hold great promise to enable chip-integrated polarimeters and polarimetric imaging systems for quantum-based optical computing and information processing, circular dichroism spectroscopy, biomedical diagnosis and remote sensing applications.
6. Zhi Zhao , Ninad Chamele, Michael Kozicki, Yu Yao, and Chao Wang *, “Photochemical Synthesis of Dendritic Silver Nano-particles for Anti-counterfeiting,” J. Mater. Chem. C, vol. 7, pp. 6099-6104, 2019. (Link: https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2019/tc/c9tc01473j)
High-trust anti-counterfeit methodologies that produce unclonable tags on only the genuine goods are in high demand globally in a number of industries from luxury brands to smart phones and to medical and manufacturing equipment. However, prevalent tagging methods face challenges in lowering the manufacturing cost, improving the structural reliability, and simplifying readout procedures. Here we report a one-pot photochemical synthetic method to produce large quantities of dendritic silver nano-particles (AgNPs) within 20 minutes and under ambient conditions, promising for large-scale manufacturing of physical taggants. By tuning the experimental conditions, such as the UV illumination and the concentration of silver-reducing agent, poly(allylamine), we demonstrate the feasibility of creating unique dendritic AgNPs with distinctive morphological characteristics. ..
5. Benjamin H. Wunsch, Sung-Cheol Kim, Stacey M. Gifford, Yann Astier, Chao Wang, Robert L. Bruce, Jyotica V. Patel, Elizabeth A. Duch, Simon Dawes, Gustavo Stolovitzky, and Joshua T. Smith, “Gel-on-a-chip: continuous, velocity-dependent DNA separation using nanoscale lateral displacement”, Lab on a Chip, vol. 19, pp. 1567-1578, 2019. (Link: https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2019/lc/c8lc01408f)
We studied the trajectories of polymers being advected while diffusing in a pressure driven flow along a periodic pillar nanostructure known as nanoscale deterministic lateral displacement (nanoDLD) array. We found that polymers follow different trajectories depending on their length, flow velocity and pillar array geometry, demonstrating that nanoDLD devices can be used as a continuous polymer fractionation tool. As a model system, we used double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) with various contour lengths and demonstrated that dsDNA in the range of 100–10000 base pairs (bp) can be separated with a size-selective resolution of 200 bp…
4. Xiahui Chen, Chu Wang, Yu Yao *, and Chao Wang *, “Plasmonic Vertically Coupled Complementary Antennas for Dual-Mode Infrared Molecule Sensing,” ACS Nano, vol. 11, pp. 8034-8046, 2017. (Link: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/acsnano.7b02687)
Here we report an infrared plasmonic nanosensor for label-free, sensitive, specific, and quantitative identification of nanometer-sized molecules. The device design is based on vertically coupled complementary antennas with densely patterned hot-spots. The elevated metallic nanobars and complimentary nanoslits in the substrate strongly couple at vertical nano-gaps between them, resulting in dual-mode sensing dependent on the light polarization parallel or perpendicular to the nanobars. We demonstrate experimentally that a monolayer of octadecanethiol (ODT) molecules (thickness 2.5 nm) leads to significant antenna resonance wavelength shift over 136 nm in the parallel mode, corresponding to 7.5 nm for each carbon atom in the molecular chain or 54 nm for each nanometer in analyte thickness. Additionally, all the four characteristic vibrational fingerprint signals, including the weak CH3- modes, are clearly delineated experimentally in both sensing modes. Such a dual-mode sensing with a broad wavelength design range (2.5 µm to 4.5 µm) is potentially useful for multi-analyte detection…
3. Chao Wang*, Sung-Wook Nam , John. M. Cotte, Christopher. V. Jahnes, Evan G. Colgan, et al., “Wafer-Scale Integration of Sacrificial Nanofluidic Chips for Single DNA Molecule Detection and Manipulation,” Nature Communications, vol. 8, pp. 14243, 2017. (Link: https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14243) (Download)
Wafer-scale fabrication of complex nanofluidic systems with integrated electronics is essential to realizing ubiquitous, compact, reliable, high-sensitivity and low-cost biomolecular sensors. Here we report a scalable fabrication strategy capable of producing nanofluidic chips with complex designs and down to single-digit nanometer dimensions over 200 mm wafer scale. Compatible with semiconductor industry standard complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) logic circuit fabrication processes, this strategy extracts a patterned sacrificial silicon layer through hundreds of millions of nanoscale vent holes on each chip by gas-phase Xenon difluoride etching. Using single-molecule fluorescence imaging, we demonstrate these sacrificial nanofluidic chips can function to controllably and completely stretch lambda DNA in a two-dimensional nanofluidic network comprising channels and pillars…
2.Benjamin H. Wunsch , Joshua T. Smith, Stacey M. Gifford, Chao Wang, Markus Brink, Robert Bruce, Robert H. Austin, Gustavo Stolovitzky, and Yann Astier, “Nanoscale Lateral Displacement Arrays for Separation of Exosomes and Colloids Down to 20nm,” Nat. Nanotechnol., vol. 11, pp. 936–940, 2016. (Link: https://www.nature.com/articles/nnano.2016.134)
To date, deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) pillar arrays have proven an efficient technology to sort, separate, and enrich micron-scale particles including human parasites, eukaryotic cells, blood cells, and circulating tumor cells in blood; however, this technology has never been translated to the true nanoscale, where it could function on bio-colloids such as exosomes. Exosomes, a key target of “liquid biopsies”, are secreted by cells, and contain information about their originating tissue, including nucleic acids and proteins. One challenge in studying exosome biology is sorting exosomes by size and surface markers. We use manufacturable silicon processes to produce nanoDLD arrays of uniform gap sizes ranging from 25 – 235 nm. Using fluorescent nanoparticles we show that at low Péclet numbers, where diffusion and deterministic displacement compete, nanoDLD arrays separate particles based on size with sharp resolution between 50 and 110 nm particles. Further, we demonstrate size-based displacement of exosomes, providing a step towards potential on-chip sorting and quantification of these important bio-colloids.

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1. Chao Wang *, Robert L. Bruce, Elizabeth A. Duch, Jyotica V. Patel, Joshua T. Smith, et al., “Hydrodynamics of Diamond-Shaped Gradient Nanopillar Arrays for Effective DNA Translocation into Nanochannels,” ACS Nano, vol 9, pp. 1206-1218, 2015. (Link: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/nn507350e)
Effective DNA translocation into nanochannels is critical for advancing genome mapping and future single-molecule DNA sequencing technologies. We present the design and hydrodynamic study of a diamond-shaped gradient pillar array connected to nanochannels for enhancing the success of DNA translocation events. Our analysis reveals the important roles of diamond-shaped nanopillars in guiding DNA into as small as 30 nm channels with minimized clogging, stretching DNA to nearly 100 % of their dyed contour length, inducing location-specific straddling of DNA at nanopillar interfaces, and modulating DNA speeds by pillar geometries. Importantly, all critical features down to 30 nm-wide nanochannels are defined using standard photolithography and fabrication processes ̶ a feat aligned with the requirement of high-volume, low-cost production.

Journal Publications Before Joining ASU

(1)      Jingwei Bai, Deqiang Wang, Sung-wook Nam, Hongbo Peng, Robert Bruce, Lynne Gignac, Markus Brink, Ernst Kratschmer, Stephen Rossnagel, Philip Waggoner, Kathleen Reuter, Chao Wang, Yann Astier, Venkat Balagurusamy, Binquan Luan, Young Kwark, Eric A. Joseph, Michael A. Guillorn, stas Polonsky, Ajay Royyuru, Satyavolu Papa Rao, and Gustavo Stolovitzky, “Fabrication of sub-20 nm Nanopore Arrays in Membranes with Embedded Metal Electrodes at Wafer Scales,” Nanoscale, vol 6, pp. 8900–8906, 2014.

(2)      Binquan Luan, Chao Wang, Ajay Royyuru, and Gustavo Stolovitzky, “Controlling the motion of DNA in a nanochannel with transversal alternating electric voltages,” Nanotechnology, vol 25, pp. 265101, 2014.

(3)      Chao Wang, Qi Zhang, Yu Song, and Stephen Y. Chou, “Plasmonic Bar-Coupled Dots-on-Pillar Cavity Antenna with Dual Resonances for Infrared Absorption and Sensing: Performance and Nanoimprint Fabrication,” ACS Nano, vol. 8, pp. 2618-2624, 2014.

(4)      Chao Wang, Sung-wook Nam, John M. Cotte, et al., “200 mm Wafer-Scale Integration of Sub-20 nm Sacrificial Nanofluidic Channels for Manipulating and Imaging Single DNA Molecules,” In proceeding of IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM), 2013.

(5)      Chao Wang and Stephen Y. Chou, “Integration of metallic nanostructures in fluidic channels for fluorescence and Raman enhancement by nanoimprint lithography and lift-off on compositional resist stack,” Microelec. Eng., Vol. 98, pp. 693-697, 2012.

(6)      Chao Wang, Patrick F. Murphy, Nan Yao, Kevin McIlwrath, and Stephen Y. Chou, “Growth of Straight Silicon Nanowires on Amorphous Substrates with Uniform Diameter, Length, Orientation, and Location Using Nanopatterned Host-Mediated Catalyst,” Nano Letters, vol. 11, pp. 5247-5251, 2011.

(7)      Chao Wang, Zengli Fu, Keith J. Morton, Wen-Di Li, and Stephen Y. Chou, “Printing of Sub-20 nm Wide Graphene Ribbon Arrays by Nanoimprinting Graphite Stamp and Electrostatic Force Assisted Bonding,” Nanotechnology, vol. 22, pp. 445301, 2011.

(8)      Chao Wang, Qiangfei Xia, Wen-Di Li, Zengli Fu, Keith J. Morton, and Stephen Y. Chou, “Fabrication of a 60-nm-Diameter Perfectly Round Metal-Dot Array over a Large Area on a Plastic Substrate Using Nanoimprint Lithography and Self-Perfection by Liquefaction,” Small, vol. 6, pp. 1242-1247, 2010.

(9)      Chao Wang and Stephen Y. Chou, “Self-aligned fabrication of 10 nm wide asymmetric trenches for Si/SiGe heterojunction tunneling field effect transistors using nanoimprint lithography, shadow evaporation, and etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B, vol. 27, pp. 2790-2794, 2009.

(10)   Chao Wang, Zheyao Wang, Tian-Ling Ren, Yiping Zhu, Yi Yang, Xiaoming Wu, Haining Wang, Huajun Fang, and Litian Liu, “A micromachined piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer operating in d 33 mode using square interdigital electrodes,” IEEE Sensors Journal, vol. 7, pp. 967-976, 2007.

(11)   Chao Wang, Tianling Ren, Zheyao Wang, Yiping Zhu, Ningxin Zhang, and Litian Liu, “Fabrication and characterization of in-plane polarized PZT films with interdigital electrodes,” Integrated Ferroelectrics, vol. 88, pp. 3-11, 2007.

(12)   Chao Wang, Zheyao Wang, Tianling Ren, and Litian Liu, “Design and simulation of a novel operation mode of integrated ferroelectric micro-sensors,” Integrated Ferroelectrics, vol. 78, pp. 59-67, 2006.

(13)  Zheyao Wang, Chao Wang, and Litian Liu, “Design and analysis of a PZT-based micromachined acoustic sensor with increased sensitivity,” IEEE transactions on ultrasonics, ferroelectrics, and frequency control, vol. 52, pp. 1840-1850, 2005.

Conferences and Presentations

(1)    Zhi Zhao, Ninad Chamele, Michael Kozicki, Yu Yao, and Chao Wang, “Photochemical Synthesis of Dendritic Silver Nano-particles (AgNPs) for Anti-counterfeiting,” presented at the The International Conference on Electron, Ion, and Photon Beam Technology and Nanofabrication Minneapolis, MN, 2019.

(2)    Zhi Zhao, Chao Wang, Yan Liu, and Hao Yan, “Soft Robotics Programmed with Double Crosslinking DNA Hydrogels,” presented at the The International Conference on Electron, Ion, and Photon Beam Technology and Nanofabrication Minneapolis, MN, 2019.

(3)    Zhi Zhao, Xiahui Chen, Ali Basiri, Yu Yao, Yan Liu, Hao Yan, and Chao Wang, “DNA Origami-Templated Assembly of Heterogeneous Nanocavity for Quantum Emitter,” presented at the The International Conference on Electron, Ion, and Photon Beam Technology and Nanofabrication Minneapolis, MN, 2019.

(4)    Ali Basiri, Xiahui Chen, Jing Bai, Pouya Amrollahi, Joe Carpenter, Zachary Holman, Chao Wang, and Yu Yao, “Nature-Inspired Chiral Metasurfaces for Circular Polarization Detection and Full-Stokes Polarimetric Measurement,” presented at the The International Conference on Electron, Ion, and Photon Beam Technology and Nanofabrication Minneapolis, MN, 2019.

(5)    Pengkun Xia, Jiawei Zuo, Pravin Paudel, and Chao Wang, “Scalable fabrication of triangular nanopore membranes on sapphire substrate for low-noise DNA detection,” presented at the The International Conference on Electron, Ion, and Photon Beam Technology and Nanofabrication Minneapolis, MN, 2019.

(6)   Xiahui Chen, Zhi Zhao, Shinhyuk Choi, MD Ashif Ikbal, Pengkun Xia, Jiawei Zuo, Jing Bai, Ali Basiri, Yu Yao, Chao Wang, “Ultra-Sensitive MicroRNA Detection Using Vertically Coupled Plasmonic Nanoantennas,” presented at the Materials Research Society (MRS) meetings, Phoenix, AZ, 2019.

(7)    Jing Bai, Chu Wang, Xiahui Chen, Ali Basiri, Chao Wang, and Yu Yao, “Chip Integrated Plasmonic Flat Optics for Mid-infrared Polarization Detection,” presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, 2018.

(8)    Ali Basiri, Xiahui Chen, Pouya Amrollahi, Jing Bai, Chao Wang, and Yu Yao, “Highly Efficient Circularly Polarized Light Detection Based on Chip-Integrated Metasurface,” presented at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), San Jose, CA, 2018.

(9)    Jing Bai, Chu Wang, Xiahui Chen, Ali Basiri, Chao Wang, and Yu Yao, “Chip Integrated Plasmonic Flat Optics for Mid-infrared Polarization Detection,” presented at the Materials Research Society (MRS) meetings, Phoenix, AZ, 2018.

(10)    Ali Basiri, Xiahui Chen, Pouya Amrollahi, Jing Bai, Joe V. Carpenter, Zachary Holman, Chao Wang, and Yu Yao, “Highly Efficient Circularly Polarized Light Detection Based on Chip-Integrated Metasurface,” presented at the Materials Research Society (MRS) Meeting, Phoenix, 2018.

(11) Xiahui Chen, Yu Yao, and Chao Wang, “A Novel Fano Resonance Based Plasmofluidic Nanoantenna for Ultrasensitive Biological Nanoparticle Detection,” presented at the Materials Research Society (MRS) meetings, Phoenix, AZ, 2018.

(12) Xiahui Chen, Chu Wang, Yu Yao, and Chao Wang, “Plasmonic Vertically Coupled Complementary Antennas for Dual-Mode Infrared Molecule Sensing,” presented at the Material Research Society (MRS) Meeting, Phoenix, AZ, 2017.

(13) Chao Wang, Chu Wang, and Yu Yao, “Multiplexed High-Security Signaling System Using Bioinspired Metasurface Nanostructures,” presented at Defense Innovation – SBIR/STTR Summit, 2015.

(14) Chao Wang, Robert L. Bruce, Elizabeth A. Duch, Jyotica V. Patel, Joshua T. Smith, Yann Astier, Evan G. Colgan, Qinghuang Lin, and Gustavo Stolovitzk, “Clog-free Translocation of Long DNA in Nanofluidic Pillar Arrays and 30 nm Wide Channels: a Fabrication and Hydrodynamic Study,” presented at 18th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (μTAS 2014), San Antonio, TX, 2014.

(15) Binquan Luan, Chao Wang, Ajay Royyuru, and Gustavo A. Stolovitzky, “Controlling Motion of DNA in a Nanochannel with Transversal Alternating Voltages,” in Biophysical Society 58th Annual Meeting San Francisco, California, 2014.

(16) Chao Wang, Sung-wook Nam, John M. Cotte, et al., “200 mm Wafer-Scale Integration of Sub-20 nm Sacrificial Nanofluidic Channels for Manipulating and Imaging Single DNA Molecules,” in IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting (IEDM). Washington, DC, 2013.

(17) Chao Wang, “Nanofluidic Channels — A Promising Platform for DNA Sequencing,” in IBM Materials Research Community (MRC) Seminar Series, 2013.

(18) Ruoming Peng, Chao Wang, Liangcheng Zhou, et al., “Fabrication and Demonstration of Ultra-sensitive and Fast Immunoassay Platform With 3D Nanoplasmonic Cavity Antenna and Microfluidics Using Nanoimprint,” in EIPBN’13. Nashville, TN, 2013.

(19) Ruoming Peng, Chao Wang, Liangcheng Zhou, Qi Zhang, Weihua Zhang, and Stephen Y. Chou, “Fabrication and Demonstration of Ultra-sensitive and Fast Fluorescence Immunoassay Using Novel Nanoplasmonic Sensor inside Microfluidic Channels,” in Micro TAS 2012. Okinawa, Japan, 2012.

(20) Ruoming Peng, Chao Wang, Liangcheng Zhou, Qi Zhang, Weihua Zhang, and Stephen Y. Chou, “Fabrication and Performance of Ultra-sensitive, Fast, Nanoplasmonic Microfluidic Immunoassay by Large-Area High-Precision Nanoimprint,” in NNT 2012. Napa Valley, USA, 2012.

(21) Chao Wang, Ruoming Peng, Wen-Di Li, and Stephen Y. Chou, “Plasmonic Nano-cavity Antenna Arrays Integrated in Fluidic Systems for >20X Enhancement of Single DNA Molecule Detection”, MNE, Berlin, Germany, 2011.

(22) Chao Wang, Weihua Zhang, and Stephen Y. Chou, “Fabrication and Performance of Plasmonic Nano-cavity Antenna Arrays Self-aligned in Fluidic Channels for Enhancement of Single DNA Molecule Detection”, Micro TAS, Seattle, Washington, 2011.

(23) Ruoming Peng, Chao Wang, Wendi Li, Fei Ding, Weihua Zhang, Liangchen Zhou, and Stephen Y. Chou, “Over 20 Fold Fluorescence Enhancement of YOYO-1 Labeled DNA Using New 3D Cavity Nanoscale Plasmonic Antenna Array”, Micro TAS, Seattle, Washington, 2011.

(24) Chao Wang and Stephen Y. Chou, “Large-area Patterning of Au Nano-particles Self-aligned to Fluidic Channels for Enhancement of Molecule Detection”, EIPBN’11, Las Vegas, Nevada, 2011.

(25) Chao Wang, Qi Zhang, and Stephen Y. Chou, “Fabrication of Large-area Plasmonic Nano-cavity Antenna Array for High Efficiency Mid-and-Far Infrared Sensing”, EIPBN’11, Las Vegas, Nevada, 2011.

(26) Hao Chen, Chao Wang, and Stephen Y. Chou, “Extraction Efficiency Improvement of GaN-based Light-emitting Diodes Using Sub-wavelength Nanoimprinted Patterns on Sapphire Substrates”, EIPBN’11, Las Vegas, Nevada, 2011.

(27) Siran Li, Chao Wang, Yan Chen, and et al., “Nanofluidic Single DNA Sorter and Analyzer Fabricated by Nanoimprint and Wafer Bonding”, EIPBN’11, Las Vegas, Nevada, 2011.

(28) Wen-Di Li, Fei Ding, Yixing Liang, Chao Wang, and et al., “Design and Fabrication of High Enhancement Yet Wafer-Scale Uniform SERS/Plasmonic Structures Based on Nanoimprint Lithography and Self-Assembly”, EIPBN’11, Las Vegas, Nevada, 2011.

(29) Hao Chen, Chao Wang, and Stephen Y. Chou, “Extraction Efficiency Improvement of GaN Light-emitting Diode Using Sub-wavelength Nanoimprinted Patterns on Sapphire Substrate”, CLEO’11, Baltimore, Maryland, 2011.

(30) Chao Wang, Hao Chen, and Stephen Y. Chou, “Light Extraction Efficiency Improvement of Blue GaN Light Emitting Diode Using Nanoimprinted Patterns on Sapphire Substrate,” NNT’09, Oresund and Copenhagen, 2010.

(31) Chao Wang, Patrick F. Murphy, Nan Yao, and et al., “Growth of Straight Crystal Silicon Nanowires on Nanopatterned Amorphous Substrate with Uniform Diameter and Length, Preferred Orientation, and Predetermined Location,” EIPBN’10, Anchorage, Alaska, 2010.

(32) Wen-Di Li, Chao Wang, and Stephen Y. Chou, “100 nm Metallic Checkerboard by Wafer-scale Nanoimprint and Its Application in Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering”, CLEO’10, San Jose, California, 2010.

(33) Chao Wang, Qiangfei Xia, Wen-Di Li, et al., “Fabrication of Uniform Dense Metal Dot Arrays over a Large Area on Flexible Plastic Substrate Using UV Nanoimprint Lithography and Self-Perfection by Liquefaction (SPEL),” NNT’09, San Jose, California, 2009.

(34) Wen-Di Li, Chao Wang, and Stephen Y. Chou, “Fabrication of Large-Area 100 nm Checker Board Mold Using 3D Patterning with Multiple Nanoimprint Lithography and Self-Aligned Selective Etching”, EIPBN’09, Marco Island, Florida, 2009.

(35) Chao Wang, Zengli Fu, Wen-Di Li, and Stephen Y. Chou, “Printing of Sub- 20 nm Wide Graphene Ribbon Arrays over a Large Area by Imprinting Nanostructures on a Graphite Stamp and Electrostatic Force Assisted Bonding,” NNT’09, San Jose, California, 2009.

(36) Chao Wang and Stephen Y. Chou, “Self-Aligned Fabrication of 10 nm-Wide Asymmetric Trenches in Si for Heterojunction Tunneling FETs Using Nanoimprint Lithography, Shadow Evaporation, and Etching,” EIPBN’09, Marco Island, Florida, 2009.

(37) Tianling Ren, Hao Chen, Yi Yang, Yiping Zhu, Di Fu, Chao Wang, Xiaoming Wu, Jian Cai, Litian Liu, and Zhijian Li, “Micromachined piezoelectric acoustic device,” in International Workshop on Electron Devices and Semiconductor Technology (IEDST), 2009, pp. 1-6.

(38) Chao Wang, Patrick F. Murphy, and Stephen Y. Chou, “Location-, Diameter-, Length-, and Orientation- Controlled Growth of Si Nanowires on Amorphous Substrate Using Nanoimprint Lithography and Novel Catalysts,” NNT’08, Kyoto, Japan, 2008.

(39) Yiping Zhu, Tianling Ren, Chao Wang, Zheyao Wang, Litian Liu, and Zhijian Li, “Novel In-Plane Polarized PZT Film Based Ultrasonic Micro-Acoustic Device,” in International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference (TRANSDUCERS), 2007, pp. 1291-1294.

Patents

(1)      “Low-Cost Additive Manufacturing of Silver Films for Concentrating Solar-Thermal Plants,” M19-288P, Disclosed 2019.

(2)      “Photochemical Method to Grow Silver Dendrites,” M19-034P, U.S. Patent 62/750,615, 2018.

(3)      “Direct metal printing with stereolithography,” M18-131P, U.S. Patent 62/635,907, 2018.

(4)      “On-Chip Polarization Detection and Polarimetric Imaging,” M18-039P, U.S. Patent 62/609,877, 2018.

(5)      “Exosome Quantification on Plasmonic Nanosensors for Cancer Diagnosis,” M17-218L, Filed 2017.

(6)      “Low-Noise Biomolecular Sensors,” M16-267L, 62/477,861, WO2018136497, 2016.

(7)      “Direct Bond Transfer Layers For Manufacturable Sealing of Microfluidic Chips,” US20170144149 A1, 2017.

(8)      “Nanopillar Arrays with Interfaces for Controlled Polymer Stretching and Effective Translocation into Nanochannels” US9733232 B1, 2017.

(9)      “On-chip molecule fluorescence detection,” US Patent 9,513,220, 2016.

(10)   “Continuous Flow, Size-Based Separation of Entities Down to The Nanometer Scale Using Nanopillar Arrays,” US Patent 20,160,144,406, 2016.

(11)   “Pillar Array Structure With Uniform And High-Aspect Ratio, Nanometer Gaps,” US Patent 20,160,144,361, 2016.

(12)   “Biopolymer Separation Using Nanostructured Arrays,” US Patent 20,160,146,778, 2016.

(13)   “Nanochannel device with three dimensional gradient by single step etching for molecular detection,” US20150252414, US20160220996, 2016.

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